美國合同法 (Contracts) 中的Third-Party Beneficiary (上)

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這次我們從舉例切入到法律,例子:甲方和乙方的保險合同裡提到:甲方每年要支付一定數額的保險費,在甲方去世後,乙方要支付一大筆錢給丙方,甲方有更改受益人的權利。例子二:你答應給我一筆錢,如果我去刷你媽媽的房子的牆。

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這兩個例子裡面都涉及到了Third-Party Beneficiary第三方受益人,the person benefiting from the performance就是說那個人因為我和你的履行合同責任而受益。Promisor立約人,the person who is to render the performance that benefits the third-party beneficiary指的是給第三方受益人好處的提供者。Promisee受約人,person bargaining with the promisor for the promisor’s promise that benefits third-party beneficiary指的是和承諾者為了給三方受益人好處承諾而討價還價的人。

law-206-ch-9-third-party-contracts-4-728Intended Beneficiary預期受益人, only “intended beneficiaries” have legal rights under the contract只有預期受益人有法律權利去訴訟。A person is an “intended beneficiary” if the purpose of the Promisee (according to the language of the K) was to confer a benefit on another person, and NOT to get the benefit for herself primarily在合同的語言中如果表達了受約人的目的是授予利益給另一個人,那麼立約人自己本身是沒有任何利益的。那麼如何考量一個人是不是Intended Beneficiary預期受益人呢?我們需要考慮幾個因素。(1) whether the 3rd party is expressly designated in the K 第三方是不是合同中明示指出的人; (2) whether the performance by the Promisor is to be made directly to the 3rd party立約人的履行合同責任是不是直接給了第三方受益人; (3) whether the 3rd party has any rights under the K 第三方受益人是不是有合同指定的某些權利; and (4) whether the 3rd party has a relationship with the Promisee from which one could infer that the Promisee wished to make an agreement for the 3rd party’s benefit第三方受益人和受約人有關系可以推測出受約人希望給第三方受益人好處協議。

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大愛舉例環節,因為這樣可以解釋清楚一些。舉例一,法學院和裝修公司有一個翻新學校模擬法庭的合同,但是裝修公司違約了。學生們可以訴訟裝修公司嗎?不可以,因為學生是incidental beneficiaries附帶受益人不是intended beneficiaries預期受益人。舉例二,銀行承諾貸款給你去給你的債主還債,但銀行違反了承諾,那你的債主可以訴訟銀行嗎?不能,債主是附帶受益人,因為貸款是用來給你好處的,不是給債主好處的。

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哈哈,由這兩個例子就可以引出兩種intended beneficiaries預期受益人,Creditor 債主以及 Donee受贈者。A 3rd party is a Donee UNLESS it was already a creditor of the Promisee when the K was entered into between the Promisee and the Promisor第三方受益人是受贈者,除非他是受約人的債主,當受約人和立約人有合同的時候。這句話不能直接翻譯,必須反過來看,第三方受益人如果是受約人的債主的話,就不是受贈者了。當然啦,欠債還錢,天經地義,你欠別人錢,還錢是應當啊,不能當還的錢是禮物啦!

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廢話不多說,請看下一篇。